COVID-19 Scientific and Public Health Policy Update – (March 24, 2020)

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In addition to our weekly brief on the spread of COVID-19 and the actions that Africa CDC is taking to help member states, Africa CDC has begun to share a weekly brief detailing the latest changes in scientific knowledge and public health policy changes, as well as updates to the latest guidance from WHO and others. Contents of this document are not intended to serve as recommendations from the Africa CDC; rather, it is a summary of the factbase to help inform member states. It is important to note that the outbreak is evolving rapidly and that the nature of this information will continue to change. So we will continue to provide regular updates to ensure member states are informed of the most critical developments in these areas.

A Executive Summary

A report on COVID-19 patients in China suggest that prior to the travel restrictions in January 23, 86% of all infections were undocumented and that these infections were the source of 79% of documented cases. A published study on aerosol and surface stability of SARS-CoV-2 suggests that the virus can remain viable in aerosols for up to 3 hours, copper for up to 4 hours, cardboard for up to 24 hours and plastics and steel for up to 4 days. An epidemic-modeling report suggests that a combination of case isolation, home quarantine and social distancing of >70-year-olds could reduce peak critical care demand by two-thirds and halve the number of deaths. However, this would still result in an 8-fold higher peak demand then surge capacity on critical care beds in both UK and the US. Leveraging population-wide social distancing, home isolation of cases and school and university closures have the potential to suppress transmission below the threshold of R=1, however, to avoid rebound in transmission, these policies would need to be maintained until large stocks of vaccines are available (which could be in 18 months). A clinical trial of lopinavir-ritonavir treatment on 199 patients found that intake of the  drugs resulted in no benefit beyond standard care. Meanwhile, an observational trial suggests that chloroquine could be a promising treatment based on lower viral loads observed in patients who were administered the drug. However, randomized control trials need to be conducted in order to validate viability of the drug. Multiple trials are underway including a large global trial, SOLIDARITY, launched by WHO. The US FDA has granted 'emergency use authorization' to Cepheid's COVID-19 test. The test is a molecular, PCR-based test, that can provide accurate results in 45 minutes. The tests are planned to be rolled out on March 30. As cases in the continent continue to rise over the past week, African countries have imposed tighter travel and public health policies such as full border closures (e.g.,  Angola, Rwanda, Nigeria), cessation of air traffic (e.g., Kenya, Sierra Leone, Mauritania), entry restrictions for non-citizens / non-residents (e.g., Seychelles), lockdown (e.g., South Africa, Rwanda) and etc. Similarly, heavily affected countries globally have continued to enforce strict public health and travel policies such as entry restrictions for all foreigners (e.g., EU), closure of schools and non-essential businesses (e.g., Italy, US, UK) etc.

New Guidlines and Resources

Since March 17th, WHO has published new and updated guidance on Critical  Preparedness and Response Actions for COVID-19, Home care for patients with COVID-  19 presenting with mild symptoms, Rights, Roles and Responsibilities of health workers,  IPC during health care, Guidance for Mental Health and Psychosocial considerations, Guidance for Population-based age-stratified seroepidemiological investigation protocol  for COVID-19, Advice on the use of masks in the community, during home care and in  healthcare settings US CDC has published new and updated guidance on Preparedness of Healthcare  Facilities, Long-term Care Facilities / Nursing Homes, Criteria for Return to Work of a  Healthcare Personnel with Confirmed or Suspected COVID-19, IPC for Outpatient  Hemodialysis Facilities, Interim Guidelines for Collecting, Handling and Testing Clinical  Specimens, Travel, Protecting and Preparing Home and Family for COVID-19 ECDC has issued new guidance and resources on Safe handling of bodies of deceased  persons with suspected or confirmed COVID-19, Supply of substances of human origin in  the EU/EEA, Discharge criteria for confirmed COVID-19 cases, IPC in Healthcare  Settings, Information for Specific Groups (e.g., Elderly, Chronic Disease Patients,  Pregnant Women etc.) and Considerations relating to Social Distancing Measures The full list of latest guidance and resources from WHO and other public health institutions are listed at the end of this update in section G.

Scientific Updates

Basic science (virology, immunology, pathogenesis)

A published study on aerosol and surface stability of SARS-CoV-2 suggests that the virus  can remain viable in aerosols for up to 3 hours, copper for up to 4 hours, cardboard for up  to 24 hours and plastics and steel for up to 4 days. A review of the viral dynamics of mild and severe patients (76) in Nanchang found that  severe COVID-19 patients tend to have a high viral load (mean viral load that was 60x  higher than that of mild cases') and a long virus-shedding period (90% of mild cases tested negative after 10 days, while severe cases all still tested positive). A case report on the kinetics of immune responses in relation to clinical and virologic features of a patient with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 found that increased antibody-  secreting cells (ASCs), follicular helper T cells (TFH cells), activated CD4+ T cells and  CD8+ T cells and immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies that bound the COVID-19-  causing coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 were detected in blood before symptomatic recovery. These immunological changes persisted for at least 7 days following full resolution of symptoms. Further examinations of larger cohort sizes are needed to determine if such immune parameters can be used to predict disease outcomes.

Epidemiology

An estimation of undocumented COVID-19 patients in China suggest that prior to the travel restrictions in January 23, 86% of all infections were undocumented and that these undocumented infections (many of whom were most likely not severely symptomatic) were the source of 79% of documented cases. A review of 1391 children tested (of which 171 or 12.3% were positive) from Jan 28 to Feb 26 in Wuhan suggests that most children have a milder clinical course and that  asymptomatic cases are not uncommon. Only 42% of the children had fever, only 3 required intensive care (all of whom had coexisting conditions). As of March 8, there was only 1 death (a 10-month-old child with intussusception). 21 patients were in stable condition and 149 have been discharged. An investigation of 10 pediatric SARS-CoV-2 infection cases found that 8 of 10 children  persistently tested positive on rectal swabs even after nasopharyngeal testing was  negative, suggesting the possibility of fecal–oral transmission and that rectal swab-testing may be more useful than nasopharyngeal swab-testing in judging the effectiveness of treatment and determining the termination of quarantine. However, the report found no evidence of replication-competent virus in fecal swabs, which is required to confirm the potential for fecal–oral transmission. A single center observational study on 8 severe pediatric COVID-19 patients found that  polypnea was the most common symptom, followed by fever and cough. Multiple patch- like shadows and ground-glass opacity in CT scans and a cytokine storm in these patients were observed. A review of literature describing 38 pregnant women with COVID-19 and their newborns in China reveals that COVID-19 did not lead to maternal deaths. More importantly, there were no confirmed cases of intrauterine transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from mothers with COVID-19 to their fetuses.

Diagnostics

The US FDA has granted 'emergency use authorization' to Cepheid's COVID-19 test. The test is a molecular, PCR-based test, that can provide accurate results in 45 minutes. The tests are planned to be rolled out on March 30. An examination of the time kinetics of antibodies produced against SARS-CoV-2  suggests that humoral response to SARS-CoV-2 can aid in its diagnosis. IgM ELISA  assay when combined with PCR can increase positive detection rate to 98.6% vs. a  single qPCR test (51.9%). This methodology needs to be replicated further to fully assess effectiveness of IgM ELISA assay in diagnosis.

Care and Treatment

A clinical trial of lopinavir-ritonavir treatment on 199 patients show that intake of the drugs  resulted in no benefit i.e., clinical improvement that was one day shorter and no improvement in mortality or detectable viral RNA. An observational trial suggests that chloroquine could be a promising treatment based on lower viral loads observed in patients who were administered the drug. However, randomized control trials need to be conducted in order to validate viability of the drug.

A network-based methodology for systematic identification of drugs for potential treatment of SARS-CoV-2 has prioritized 16 candidate repurposable drugs and 3  potential drug combinations. However, although the majority of predictions have been validated by various literature data, these must be validated in various experimental assays and randomized clinical trials before being used in patients. WHO announced a large global trial, called SOLIDARITY, focused on the four most  promising therapies: remdesivir, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir and  ritonavir, and lopinavir and ritonavir plus interferon-beta, an immune system messenger that can help cripple viruses. Similarly, INSERM, announced that it will coordinate an add-on trial in Europe, named Discovery, that will follow WHO’s example and will include 3200 patients from at least seven countries, including 800 from France. That trial will test the same drugs, except for chloroquine.

Vaccines

China has authorized clinical trials on its first vaccine developed to combat the new coronavirus, according to a report in the ruling Communist Party's People's Daily. Moderna is seeking to provide access to the vaccine to a limited group, likely consisting  of healthcare workers, by as early as this fall. The company plans to do so under an emergency use authorization from the US FDA.

Non-pharmaceutical interventions, social distancing

The epidemic-modeling report out of Imperial College London suggests that unmitigated, the outbreak would result in approximately 510,000 deaths in the UK and 2.2 million in the US. Implementing an “optimal” mitigation strategy (i.e., reducing R but not to less than 1 through a combination of case isolation, home quarantine and social distancing of >70-year-old) reduces peak critical care demand by two-thirds and halves the number of deaths. However, this scenario would still result in an 8-fold higher peak demand on critical care beds over and above the available surge capacity in both UK and the US.  Leveraging population-wide social distancing, home isolation of cases and school and  university closures – has the potential to suppress transmission below the threshold of  R=1, however, to avoid rebound in transmission, these policies would need to be maintained until large stocks of vaccines are available (which could be in 18 months).

Related Public Health Policy

Africa

As cases in the continent continue to rise over the past week, African countries have continued to impose tighter travel and public health policies to manage the outbreak: (not exhaustive) Full border closure (air, land, sea) except for cargo / freight and emergencies:  Angola, Burkina Faso, Congo Republic, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Uganda, Zimbabwe

International air traffic closure: Kenya, Mauritania, Sierra Leone Flight suspensions to/from high risk countries: Mali, South Sudan Entry restrictions for non-citizens / non- residents coming from high risk countries: Eswatini, Côte d'Ivoire, Sao Tome and Principe, Seychelles Mandatory facility quarantine at own expense of traveler: Kenya, Ethiopia,  Tanzania Lock down (limiting of movement outside home) and curfew: Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, DRC, Gabon, Madagascar, Rwanda, Senegal, South Africa, Tunisia Shutdown of educational / religious institutions and entertainment venues, banning of mass gatherings: Burkina Faso, Cote d’Ivoire, DRC, Eswatini, Gabon,  Mali, Kenya, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, South Africa,  Zambia, Zimbabwe and etc. Limitation on prison and hospital visits: Eswatini, Gabon, Zimbabwe Equatorial Guinea has committed to contribute 5 billion CFA francs (about $8 million) to a special emergency fund to manage the COVID-19 outbreak. Kenya, Uganda, Cameroon and Ghana have asked banks and mobile network operators to promote more efficient, digital forms of payment (e.g., lower or no tariffs on mobile money transfers) Ethiopian Airlines has started the distribution of coronavirus donation made to Africa by Chinese business mogul Jack Ma, CEO of e-commerce giants Ali Baba. The carrier will start distribution to its neighbors – Eritrea, Djibouti, Egypt and Sudan. Ethiopian Airlines has suspended flights to 30 affected countries. Refer to Section E and F for the full summary of travel restrictions and social distancing measures implemented by African countries.

Rest of World

As COVID-19 cases outside China accelerate rapidly, heavily affected countries have continued to impose public health policies to contain the outbreak The European Union (EU) will impose an entry ban on travelers from outside the bloc for 30 days, only nationals of EFTA countries and Britain are exempt. Italy has ordered all non-essential businesses to close until April 3. The army was  deployed to enforce lockdown in the country’s worst-hit region. In addition, the  country will rush 10,000 student doctors into service, scrapping their final exams. Multiple states in the US have ordered closures of schools / education institutions and non-essential businesses. The US military will make available up to 5 million  respirator masks and protective equipment Germany has expanded entry restrictions to include flights from Italy, Spain, Austria, France, Luxembourg, Denmark and Switzerlan UK has announced a strict lockdown in the country, restricting public movement to essential activities. Canada's most populous province Ontario has ordered the closure of bars and restaurants and banned gatherings of more than 50 people. As cases across multiple countries across all continent grow, countries have increasingly

imposed restrictive travel and public health policies (not exhaustive)

Full border closures: Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Malaysia, Lithuania, Honduras Suspension of all international flights: Belgium, UAE, Pakistan, Vietnam, etc. Entry restrictions to travelers from specific countries or all foreigners: Australia, Russia, Uzbekistan Singapore, Jamaica, Cuba Suspension of travel to and from high risk areas e.g., Argentina, Bangladesh, Netherlands, Turkey, Jordan Community quarantine / lockdown: El Salvador, Bolivia, Ecuador, Venezuela, Peru, Philippines, Iraq Shutdown of educational institutions, religious institutions, and other public areas: Afghanistan, Australia, India, Qatar, UAE, Armenia, Thailand, Kazakhstan, Italy, Poland etc. Banning of mass / public gatherings: Oman, Lebanon, Qatar and etc. While domestic cases in China have waned, imported cases have risen. As a result, the country has tightened quarantine measures for travelers arriving into the country,  requiring all travelers arriving in Beijing and Hong Kong are required to go into centralized  quarantine locations for 14 days.

Summary of Travel Restriction implemented By Member States

Last updated

Country

Mandatory self- quaran- tine

Mandatory facility quarantine for all travelers

Entry restric- tions (incl. visa limitations)

Flight / travel suspensions to specific countries

Air traffic closure

Full border closure

18-Mar

Algeria

y

21-Mar

Angola

y

17-Mar

Benin

y

y

17-Mar

Botswana

y

21-Mar

Burkina Faso

y

24-Mar

Burundi

y

18-Mar

Cabo Verde

y

y

18-Mar

Cameroon

y

18-Mar

Central African Republic

18-Mar

Chad

y

y

y

17-Mar

Comoros

y

21-Mar

Congo Republic

y

18-Mar

Côte d'Ivoire

y

y

18-Mar

Djibouti

y

18-Mar

DR Congo

y

17-Mar

Egypt

y

18-Mar

Equatorial Guinea

y

17-Mar

Eritrea

y

18-Mar

Eswatini

y

y

23-Mar

Ethiopia

y

y

20-Mar

Gabon

y

y

23-Mar

Gambia

y

22-Mar

Ghana

y

17-Mar

Guinea

y

18-Mar

Guinea- Bissau

y

22-Mar

Kenya

y

y

17-Mar

Lesotho

y

17-Mar

Liberia

y

18-Mar

Libya

y

18-Mar

Madagascar

y

17-Mar

Malawi

y

18-Mar

Mali

y

21-Mar

Mauritania

y

18-Mar

Mauritius

y

y

17-Mar

Morocco

y

17-Mar

Mozambique

y

18-Mar

Namibia

y

y

21-Mar

Niger

y

21-Mar

Nigeria

y

21-Mar

Rwanda

y

19-Mar

Sahrawi Republic

y

18-Mar

Sao Tome and Principe

y

Last updated

Country

Mandatory self- quaran- tine

Mandatory facility quarantine for all travelers

Entry restric- tions (incl. visa limitations)

Flight / travel suspensions to specific countries

Air traffic closure

Full border closure

18-Mar

Senegal

y

18-Mar

Seychelles

y

23-Mar

Sierra Leone

y

18-Mar

Somalia

y

17-Mar

South Africa

y

y

21-Mar

South Sudan

y

y

17-Mar

Sudan

y

y

23-Mar

Tanzania

y

24-Mar

Togo

y

18-Mar

Tunisia

y

y

22-Mar

Uganda

y

18-Mar

Zambia

y

24-Mar

Zimbabwe

y

Summary of social distancing measures implemented by Member States

Last updated

Country

Closure of educational institutions

Banning of mass gatherings, closure of public spaces

Measures for special populations e.g., prison, elder homes

Lockdown (e.g., curfew, stay at home)

12-Mar

Algeria

y

y

19-Mar

Angola

y

18-Mar

Benin

y

19-Mar

Botswana

y

20-Mar

Burkina Faso

y

y

y

19-Mar

Burundi

18-Mar

Cabo Verde

y

17-Mar

Cameroon

y

y

19-Mar

Central African Republic

20-Mar

Chad

y

19-Mar

Comoros

19-Mar

Congo Republic

23-Mar

Côte d'Ivoire

y

y

y

20-Mar

Djibouti

y

23-Mar

DR Congo

y

y

y

16-Mar

Egypt

y

y

19-Mar

Equatorial Guinea

23-Mar

Eritrea

y

17-Mar

Eswatini

y

y

y

16-Mar

Ethiopia

y

y

21-Mar

Gabon

y

y

y

y

17-Mar

Gambia

y

y

16-Mar

Ghana

y

y

19-Mar

Guinea

19-Mar

Guinea-Bissau

15-Mar

Kenya

y

y

19-Mar

Lesotho

y

18-Mar

Liberia

y

y

13-Mar

Libya

y

y

Last updated

Country

Closure of educational institutions

Banning of mass gatherings, closure of public spaces

Measures for special populations e.g., prison, elder homes

Lockdown (e.g., curfew, stay at home)

23-Mar

Madagascar

y

29-Mar

Malawi

y

y

18-Mar

Mali

y

y

14-Mar

Mauritania

y

y

y

18-Mar

Mauritius

y

14-Mar

Morocco

y

y

19-Mar

Mozambique

y

y

17-Mar

Namibia

y

y

19-Mar

Niger

y

y

21-Mar

Nigeria

y

21-Mar

Rwanda

y

19-Mar

Sahrawi Republic

19-Mar

Sao Tome and Principe

24-Mar

Senegal

y

y

y

19-Mar

Seychelles

18-Mar

Sierra Leone

y

19-Mar

Somalia

23-Mar

South Africa

y

19-Mar

South Sudan

y

14-Mar

Sudan

y

y

17-Mar

Tanzania

y

y

19-Mar

Togo

20-Mar

Tunisia

y

y

y

18-Mar

Uganda

y

y

17-Mar

Zambia

y

y

23-Mar

Zimbabwe

y

y

y

WHO Guidlines and Resources

Organization

Date published

Guidance or resource name

Country readiness

WHO

9-Jan-2020

National capacities review tool for a novel coronavirus

WHO

19-Mar-2020

Critical preparedness, readiness and response actions for  COVID-19

WHO

4-Mar-2020

Operational Planning Guidelines and COVID-19 Partners  Platform to support country preparedness and response

Surveillance and case definitions

WHO

27-Feb-2020

Global Surveillance for human infection with coronavirus  disease (COVID-19)

WHO

27-Feb-2020

Revised case reporting form for COVID-19 for confirmed cases  and their outcome

WHO

n/a

Emerging respiratory viruses, including 2019-nCoV: methods  for detection, prevention, response and control

WHO

n/a

Global COVID-19 Clinical Characterization Case Record Form  and new data platform for anonymized COVID-19 clinical data

 

Organization

Date published

Guidance or resource name

WHO

n/a

Case Reporting Form for COVID-19

Laboratory guidance

WHO

2-Mar-2020

Laboratory testing for 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in  suspected human cases

WHO

1-Mar-2020

Guidance for laboratories shipping specimens to WHO  reference laboratories that provide confirmatory testing for  COVID-19 virus

Patient management

WHO

13-Mar-2020

Clinical management of severe acute respiratory infection  when novel coronavirus (nCoV) infection is suspected

WHO

17-Mar-2020

Home care for patients with suspected novel coronavirus  (nCoV) infection presenting with mild symptoms and  management of contacts

WHO

n/a

WHO Critical Care Severe Acute Respiratory Infection Training  Short Course

WHO

19-Mar-2020

The Rights, Roles and Responsibilities Of Health Workers,  Including Key Considerations For Occupational Safety And  Health

WHO

19-Mar-2020

Mental health and psychosocial considerations during the  COVID-19 outbreak

Infection prevention and control

WHO

19-Mar -2020

Infection prevention and control during health care when novel  coronavirus (nCoV) infection is suspected

WHO

19-Mar-2020

Advice on the use of masks in the community, during home  care and in health care settings in the context of the novel  coronavirus (2019-nCoV) outbreak

WHO

10-Feb-2020

Q&A on infection prevention and control for health care  workers caring for patients with suspected or confirmed 2019-  nCoV

WHO

11-Feb-2020

Key considerations for repatriation and quarantine of travellers  in relation to the outbreak of novel coronavirus 2019-nCoV

WHO

16-Feb-2020

Management of ill travellers at Points of Entry – international  airports, seaports and ground crossings – in the context of  COVID-19 outbreak

WHO

18-Feb-2020

Surface sampling of coronavirus disease (COVID-19):

A practical “how to” protocol for health care and public health  professionals

WHO

14-Feb-2020

Key planning recommendations for Mass Gatherings in the  context of the current COVID-19 outbreak

WHO

n/a

Online course for public health preparedness for mass  gathering events

WHO

n/a

Infection Prevention and Control (IPC) for Novel Coronavirus  (COVID-19)

WHO

27-Feb-2020

Rational use of personal protective equipment

 

Organization

Date published

Guidance or resource name

for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)

WHO

1-Mar-2016

Handbook for the Management of Public Health Events in Air  Transport

WHO

1-Jan-2016

Handbook for management of public health events on board  ships

WHO

24-Jan-2011

Handbook for inspection of ships and issuance of ship  sanitation certificates

Early investigations

WHO

25-Jan-2020

Protocol for assessment of potential risk factors for 2019-novel  coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infection among health care workers  in a health care setting

WHO

25-Jan-2020

Household transmission investigation protocol for 2019-novel  coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infection

WHO

29-Jan-2020

The First Few X (FFX) Cases and contact investigation  protocol for 2019-novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infection

WHO

25-Jan-2020

Global 2019-nCoV Clinical Characterization Case Record  Form

WHO

16-Feb-2020

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) technical guidance: Early  investigations

WHO

13-Mar-2020

Considerations in the investigation of cases and clusters of  COVID-19

WHO

17-Mar-2020

Population-based age-stratified seroepidemiological  investigation protocol for COVID-19 virus infection

Risk communication & community engagement

WHO

16-Mar-2020

Risk Communication and Community Engagement (RCCE)  Action Plan Guidance COVID-19 Preparedness and Response

WHO

5-Mar-2020

The COVID-19 Risk Communication Package For Healthcare  Facilities

WHO

10-Mar-2020

Risk Communication guidance – COVID-19, older adults and  people with underlying medical conditions

WHO

10-Mar-2020

Guidance to protect children and support safe school  operations

Disease commodity package

WHO

10-Jan-2020

Disease commodity package – Novel Coronavirus (nCoV)

Reduction of transmission of animals to humans

WHO

n/a

WHO recommendations to reduce risk of transmission of  emerging pathogens from animals to humans in live animal  markets

Travel advice

WHO

29-Feb-2020

Updated WHO recommendations for international traffic in  relation to COVID-19 outbreak

Others

 

Organization

Date published

Guidance or resource name

WHO

3-Feb-2020

2019-nCoV Strategic Preparedness and Response Plan

IATA (in

partnership with WHO)

n/a

Emergency Response Plan and Action Checklist (for air  carriers)

IATA (in

partnership with WHO)

n/a

Air Transport & Communicable Diseases Guidelines

WHO

12-Feb-2020

2019 Novel Coronavirus: Global Research and Innovation  Forum: Towards a Research Roadmap/report

WHO

11-Feb-2020

2019 Novel Coronavirus: Global Research and Innovation  Forum: Towards a Research Roadmap/report – presentation

WHO

18-Feb-2020

COVID-19 Phase IIb/III Vaccine Trial Synopsis

WHO

19-Feb-2020

Emerging respiratory viruses, including nCoV: methods for  detection, prevention, response and control

WHO

19-Feb-2020

ePROTECT Respiratory Infections (EN)

WHO

24-Feb-2020

Operational considerations for managing COVID-19  cases/outbreak on board ships

WHO

6-Mar-2020

Q&A on COVID-19 vs. Influenza

Other public health institutions guidance and resources

Organization

Date published

Guidance or resource name

Country readiness

ECDC

17-Mar-2020

Guidance for health system contingency planning during  widespread transmission of SARS-CoV-2 with high impact on  healthcare services

Surveillance and case definitions

US CDC

2-Feb-2020

Interim Guidance for Healthcare Professionals

US CDC

2-Feb-2020

Flowchart to Identify and Assess 2019 Novel Coronavirus

US CDC

n/a

Check and Record Everyday Booklet – China

US CDC

21-Mar-2020

Information for Health Departments on Reporting Cases of  COVID-19

US CDC

22-Mar-2020

Interim US Guidance for Risk Assessment and Public Health  Management of Persons with Potential Coronavirus Disease  2019 (COVID-19) Exposures: Geographic Risk and Contacts  of Laboratory-confirmed Cases

ECDC

n/a

Case definition and European surveillance for human  infection with novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)

Laboratory guidance

 

Organization

Date published

Guidance or resource name

US CDC

28-Jan-2020

US CDC panel primer and probes– U.S. CDC, USAV – U.S.  CDC, USA

US CDC

n/a

Information for Laboratories 2019-nCoV Requests for  Diagnostic Panels and Virus

US CDC

n/a

Real-Time RT-PCR Panel for Detection 2019-Novel  Coronavirus

US CDC

n/a

2019-Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Real-time rRT-PCR  Panel Primers and Probes

US CDC

17-Feb-2020

Interim Laboratory Biosafety Guidelines for Handling and  Processing Specimens Associated with Coronavirus Disease  2019 (COVID-19)

US CDC

21-Mar-2020

Interim Guidelines for Collecting, Handling, and Testing  Clinical Specimens from Persons for Coronavirus Disease  2019 (COVID-19)

US CDC

21-Mar-2020

Interim Guidelines for Collecting, Handling, and Testing  Clinical Specimens from Persons Under Investigation (PUIs)  for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)

US CDC

19-Feb-2020

Interim Guidance for Collection and Submission of  Postmortem Specimens from Deceased Persons Under  Investigation (PUI) for COVID-19, February 2020

ECDC

13-Jan-2020

Diagnostic detection of Wuhan coronavirus 2019 by real-time  RTPCR

China CDC

24-Jan-2020

China CDC Primers and probes for detection 2019-nCoV

Patient management

US CDC

n/a

Healthcare Professional Preparedness Checklist For  Transport and Arrival of Patients Potentially Infected with  2019-nCoV

US CDC

n/a

Hospital Preparedness Checklist for Suspected or Confirmed  2019-nCoV Patients

US CDC

7-Mar-2020

Interim Clinical Guidance for Management of Patients with  Confirmed Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19)

US CDC

31-Jan-2020

Interim Guidance for Implementing Home Care of People Not  Requiring Hospitalization for 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-  nCoV)

US CDC

12-Feb-2020

Interim Guidance for Implementing Home Care of People Not  Requiring Hospitalization for 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-  nCoV)

US CDC

n/a

Interim Guidance on Breastfeeding for a Mother Confirmed or  Under Investigation For COVID-19

US CDC

n/a

Frequently Asked Questions and Answers: Coronavirus  Disease-2019 (COVID-19) and Children

US CDC

n/a

Frequently Asked Questions and Answers: Coronavirus  Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and Pregnancy

 

Organization

Date published

Guidance or resource name

US CDC

n/a

What Healthcare Personnel Should Know about Caring for  Patients with Confirmed or Possible COVID-19 Infection

US CDC

n/a

Interim Guidance for Public Health Professionals Managing  People With COVID-19 in Home Care and Isolation Who  Have Pets or Other Animals

US CDC

n/a

Interim Guidance for Healthcare Facilities: Preparing for  Community Transmission of COVID-19 in the United States

US CDC

n/a

Preparing for COVID-19: Long-term Care Facilities, Nursing  Homes

US CDC

n/a

Steps Healthcare Facilities Can Take Now to Prepare for  Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)

US CDC

n/a

Criteria for Return to Work for Healthcare Personnel with  Confirmed or Suspected COVID-19 (Interim Guidance)

ECDC

30-Jan-2020

Advice to healthcare workers: management of patients with  2019-nCoV infection

ECDC

10-Feb-2020

Guidelines for the use of non-pharmaceutical measures to  delay and mitigate the impact of 2019-nCoV

ECDC

10-Mar-2020

Novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) – Discharge criteria for  confirmed COVID-19 cases

PHE

5-Mar-2020

Infographic on COVID-19 primary care in the UK

Infection prevention and control

US CDC

21-Feb-2020

Interim Infection Prevention and Control Recommendations  for Patients with Confirmed Coronavirus Disease 2019  (COVID-19) or Persons Under Investigation for COVID-19 in  Healthcare Settings

US CDC

n/a

Healthcare Supply of Personal Protective Equipment

US CDC

22-Mar-2020

Interim US Guidance for Risk Assessment and Public Health  Management of Persons with Potential Coronavirus Disease  2019 (COVID-19) Exposures: Geographic Risk and Contacts  of Laboratory-confirmed Cases

US CDC

n/a

Interim Considerations for Infection Prevention and Control of  Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Inpatient Obstetric  Healthcare Settings

US CDC

11-Feb-2020

Interim Guidance for Discontinuation of In-Home Isolation for  Patients with COVID-19

US CDC

11-Feb-2020

Interim Guidance for Discontinuation of Transmission-Based  Precautions and Disposition of Hospitalized Patients with  COVID-19

US CDC

25-Feb-2020

Interim Guidance for Preventing the Spread of Coronavirus  Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Homes and Residential  Communities

US CDC

n/a

Interim U.S. Guidance for Risk Assessment and Public Health  Management of Healthcare Personnel with Potential

 

Organization

Date published

Guidance or resource name

Exposure in a Healthcare Setting to Patients with 2019 Novel  Coronavirus (2019-nCoV)

US CDC

n/a

Interim Guidance for Public Health Personnel Evaluating  Persons Under Investigation (PUIs) and Asymptomatic Close  Contacts of Confirmed Cases at Their Home or Non-Home  Residential Setting

US CDC

n/a

Healthcare Infection Prevention and Control FAQs for  COVID-19

US CDC

n/a

Strategies for Optimizing the Supply of N95 Respirators

US CDC

28-Feb-2020

Checklist for Healthcare Facilities: Strategies for Optimizing  the Supply of N95 Respirators during the COVID-19  Response

US CDC

28-Feb-2020

Release of Stockpiled N95 Filtering Facepiece Respirators  Beyond the Manufacturer-Designated Shelf Life:  Considerations for the COVID-19 Response

US CDC

n/a

Interim Additional Guidance for Infection Prevention and  Control Recommendations for Patients with Suspected or  Confirmed COVID-19 in Outpatient Hemodialysis Facilities

ECDC

29-Jan-2020

Public health management of persons having had contact  with novel coronavirus cases in the European Union

ECDC

12-Mar-2020

Infection prevention and control for COVID-19 in healthcare  settings

ECDC

7-Feb-2020

Personal protective equipment (PPE) needs in healthcare  settings for the care of patients with suspected or confirmed  novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)

ECDC

18-Feb-2020

Interim guidance for environmental cleaning in non-healthcare  facilities exposed to SARS-CoV-2

ECDC

2-Mar-2020

Resource estimation for contact tracing, quarantine and  monitoring activities for COVID-19 cases in the EU/EEA

ECDC

28-Feb-2020

Guidance for wearing and removing personal protective  equipment in healthcare settings for the care of patients with  suspected or confirmed COVID-19

ECDC

25-Feb-2020

Public health management of persons, including health care  workers, having had contact with COVID-19 cases in the  European Union

ECDC

26-Feb-2020

Checklist for hospitals preparing for the reception and care of  coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) patients

ECDC

23-Mar-2020

Considerations related to the safe handling of bodies of  deceased persons with suspected or confirmed COVID-19

Early investigations

US CDC

28-Feb-2020

Recommendations for Reporting, Testing, and Specimen  Collection

US CDC

3-Feb-2020

Patient Under Investigation form

US CDC

4-Mar-2020

Evaluating and Reporting Patients Under Investigation (PUI)

 

Organization

Date published

Guidance or resource name

US CDC

2-Feb-2020

Interim Guidelines for Collecting, Handling, and Testing  Clinical Specimens from Patients Under Investigation (PUIs)  for 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV)

US CDC

n/a

Information for Health Departments on Reporting a Patient  Under Investigation (PUI) for 2019-nCoV

US CDC

n/a

Case Report Form for 2019 Novel Coronavirus

ECDC

30-Jan-2020

Algorithm for management of contacts of probable or  confirmed 2019-nCoV cases

Risk communication & community engagement

US CDC

24-Feb-2020

CDC in Action: Preparing Communities for Potential Spread  of COVID-19

US CDC

n/a

Interim Guidance: Get Your Household Ready for  Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)

US CDC

n/a

Interim Guidance for Administrators of US Childcare  Programs and K-12 Schools to Plan, Prepare, and Respond  to Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)

US CDC

8-Mar-2020

Resources for Institutes of Higher Education

US CDC

8-Mar-2020

COVID-19 and Cruise Ship Travel

US CDC

8-Mar-2020

Environmental Cleaning and Disinfection Recommendations

US CDC

8-Mar-2020

People at Risk for Serious Illness from COVID-19

US CDC

8-Mar-2020

What law enforcement personnel need to know  about coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)

US CDC

n/a

Resources for Community- and Faith-Based Leaders

US CDC

n/a

Resources for Homeless Shelters

US CDC

n/a

Protect Your Home

US CDC

17-Mar-2020

Protect Your Family

US CDC

n/a

How to Prepare for COVID-19

US CDC

18-Mar-2020

How to Protect Yourself

US CDC

21-Mar-2020

Older Adults

US CDC

17-Mar-2020

People with Asthma and COVID-19

US CDC

22-Mar-2020

Schools, Workplaces & Community Locations

ECDC

13-Feb-2020

Guidance on community engagement for public health events  caused by communicable disease threats in the EU/EEA

ECDC

12-Mar-2020

Information on COVID-19 for specific groups: the elderly,  patients with chronic diseases, people with  immunocompromising condition and pregnant women

ECDC

11-Mar-2020

Considerations relating to social distancing measures in  response to the COVID-19 epidemic

Disease commodity package

 

Organization

Date published

Guidance or resource name

US CDC

2-Feb-2020

Interim Laboratory Biosafety Guidelines for Handling and  Processing Specimens Associated with 2019 Novel  Coronavirus (2019-nCoV)

Travel advice

US CDC

n/a

Travelers from China Arriving in the United States

US CDC

n/a

Communication Resources for Travelers

US CDC

22-Mar-2020

Coronavirus Disease 2019 Information for Travel

ECDC

30-Jan-2020

Advice for travellers: outbreak of a novel coronavirus 2019-  nCoV

Others

US CDC

13-Feb-2020

Interim Guidance for Airlines and Airline Crew: Coronavirus  Disease 2019 (COVID-19)

US CDC

4-Feb-2020

2019 Novel Coronavirus: Interim Health Guidance from the  Federal Aviation Administration and the Centers for Disease  Control and Prevention for Air Carriers and Crews

US CDC

n/a

Preventing Spread of Disease on Commercial Aircraft:  Guidance for Cabin Crew

US CDC

n/a

Interim Guidance for Businesses and Employers to Plan and  Respond to 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV), February  2020

US CDC

n/a

Interim Guidance for Emergency Medical Services (EMS)  Systems and 911 Public Safety Answering Points (PSAPs) for  2019-nCoV in the United States

US CDC

18-Feb-2020

Interim Guidance for Ships on Managing Suspected  Coronavirus Disease 2019

ECDC

23-Mar-2020

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and supply of  substances of human origin in the EU/EEA

Social distancing

ECDC

18-Mar-2020

Video on COVID-19: Why social distancing is important

Distributed by APO Group on behalf of Africa Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (Africa CDC).

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